Wider Impacts of COVID-19 on Health (WICH) monitoring tool

 

Feedback Questionnaire

The WICH tool was first published on 16 July 2020. Since then, we have continually developed the tool to include additional metrics and make it easier to use. We would very much like to gather feedback from users of the tool to evaluate its reach, usefulness and impact and understand whether there are further improvements we could make.

We would appreciate it if you would complete this short questionnaire to help us in our evaluation. The questionnaire should take no more than 5 minutes to complete.

 

The Wider Impacts of COVID-19 on Health (WICH) monitoring tool is designed to allow you to explore the indirect effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on the population's health and wellbeing. WICH presents a range of health and wellbeing metrics in interactive plots that can be broken down to show differences between groups - for example, you can explore grocery purchasing habits by region or social class. WICH is updated monthly and may include the addition of new metrics as they become available. A summary has been included for WICH and is available to read.

Metrics

Public Health England (PHE) Health Intelligence teams have collated a range of metrics and grouped them into nine themes. Click the rows in the table below to expand groups and subgroups. The link column will take you to the relevant theme within the tool. You can search through metrics using the search bar on the right.

 

What's new?

Updated 18/11/2021.

Other resources

On the 5 November, we published a report which provided an in-depth commentary on the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on grocery shopping behaviours during March to June 2020.

Feedback

We are interested in your feedback on the tool. If you have any comments or suggested changes, please email EandS-Enquiries@phe.gov.uk

Wider Impacts of COVID-19 on Health (WICH) summary, 18 November 2021

This Office for Health Improvement and Disparities (OHID) monitoring tool looks at the wider impacts of the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic on population health. This report briefly highlights the main findings.

This resource is updated monthly, with new data for existing metrics and new metrics covering relevant themes added when data become available. In some cases, a metric is from a single time point data collection and therefore figures will not be updated. This will be continually reviewed and the resource will be updated as appropriate for relevance and timeliness.

Overview

Areas of daily life in England have all seen some noticeable changes since the start of the COVID-19 pandemic. You can view the details of these on the COVID-19 Timeline.

New metrics

Under 18 conception rate

The under 18 conception rate for girls aged 15 to 17 years in England was significantly lower in the quarters January to March 2020 and April to June 2020 compared with those quarters in 2019.

Access to care: HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) Services

Data from sexual health services show the number of tests for HIV decreased in March, April and May 2020 compared with the equivalent months in 2019 and remained lower than 2019 up until the latest data point.

Updated metrics

Life expectancy

Life expectancy at birth is a key summary measure of mortality in the population. The England estimates for 2020 represent the average number of years a new-born baby would live if he or she experienced the national age-specific mortality rates for 2020 throughout his or her life. The figures reflect current mortality rates and are not the number of years a baby born in 2020 could actually expect to live, because mortality rates will change in the future. The life expectancy estimates are therefore an alternative way of presenting mortality rates, in order to show the impact of COVID-19 on levels of mortality in 2020.

The provisional life expectancy data have been replaced with final 2020 life expectancy based on the annual 2020 mortality data. The data showed that in 2020, life expectancy for both sexes in England was lower than in each of the previous 5 years. All English regions had falls in life expectancy between 2019 and 2020, with the biggest fall in London, for both sexes. Data also showed inequalities in life expectancy in England, and the English regions, for 2020, and each of the previous five years. These data showed falls in life expectancy across all deprivation deciles in England in 2020, compared with the same period in 2019. Inequality in life expectancy for England increased for both males and females. At regional level, there was variation in the trend in inequality over this time period.

Provisional data show that life expectancy in the first half of 2021 in England increased compared with the first half of 2020 but is still significantly lower than the first half of 2019. In the first half of 2021 life expectancy for males was 78.4 years and for females 82.4 years. These are increases of 0.5 years for males and 0.6 years for females compared with the first 6 months of 2020. The Slope of inequality index (SII) in England has not significantly changed between the first half of 2020 and the first half of 2021.

Mental health and wellbeing

Self-reported mental health and wellbeing worsened during the pandemic. Adults experienced high anxiety levels and low happiness levels in the week immediately preceding the first national lockdown and the 2 following weeks. Prevalence for both indicators was more than double the average for 2019. Prevalence for both these has since declined but has generally remained above 2019 levels up to the week of the 12 September 2021.

Data from 23 March 2020 to 25 October 2021 show that trends in a range of other mental health metrics such as loneliness, abuse and self-harm, have fluctuated over the course of the pandemic. Further detail on this topic is available in the COVID-19: mental health and wellbeing surveillance report.

UCL data on major stress show that the percentage reporting major stress relating to Covid-19 was highest at the beginning of the pandemic in March 2020. After that the percentage decreased until 7 September 2020. Since then an increase was seen in the reporting of major stress related to Covid, and some previously lifted restrictions were reinstated from 14 September. Major stress related to COVID-19 in the UK dipped in November and then increased at the end of December, just before the third national lockdown was introduced 6 January 2021. Since then it decreased in the UK population until the end of March 2021 where it has remained around similar levels until the latest data point.

Remote support services for mental health

Calls to Anxiety UK increased steeply from the first lockdown in March 2020 until they peaked in May 2020. They then fell to similar levels to 2019 baseline until January 2021 when they increased again, remaining above baseline levels until April 2021. Since then they have fluctuated around the baseline level until the latest data point in October 2021.

Dementia

Numbers of people diagnosed with dementia and Alzheimer’s have fallen during the pandemic, partly due to patients not accessing services where assessment and diagnosis would take place. Recorded prevalence of these diseases in adults aged 65 and over was lower in the months from April 2020 to September 2021 than in the averages of the same months in 2017 to 2019. The estimated diagnosis rate in adults aged 65 and over was also lower from April 2020 to September 2021 than in 2019.

In September 2021, 39% of people with a diagnosis of dementia and Alzheimer’s disease had received a care plan or care plan review in the preceding 12 months, down from the 62% September average for 2018 and 2019, and down from 56% in September 2020. The care plan is how an individual's health and care needs are met through the provision of relevant and timely health services. If a care plan is not current, there could be unmet needs of the individual that could lead to the deterioration of the dementia condition and/or lead to other health conditions developing.

The number of referrals to a memory clinic have increased after a period of low referrals during the pandemic, which may result in more people who have dementia receiving a diagnoses.

Emergency admissions for dementia and Alzheimer’s disease fell in March 2020 to below 2019 baseline levels and have remained below baseline until the latest data point in July 2021.

Neurological care

Access to specialist outpatient neurology services as a whole dropped from March 2020 to May 2020 to below the 2019 baseline. Rates fluctuated below and above the baseline between June 2020 and July 2021 with the largest fall in appointments below baseline seen in January 2021. Specialist neurology services offer telephone or video consultations as alternatives to face-to-face appointments where this is appropriate. In the months prior to the introduction of social restrictions in March 2020 outpatient appointments by telephone were relatively low. There was then a steep increase and since April 2020 there has been a shift to telephone appointments which has continued to the latest data point in July 2021.

Emergency admissions for a neurological condition fell in March 2020 to below 2019 baseline levels and then increased from May 2020. From June 2020 to February 2021 admissions were similar to baseline and then increased above baseline from March until the latest data point in July 2021 when they returned to baseline level.

Births

There was a decrease in the percentage of premature birth deliveries in England during April and May 2020 compared with a monthly average baseline of combined data from April 2016 to March 2019. The rate was similar to baseline from June 2020 through to July 2021.

The rate of low birthweight and very low birthweight babies has remained similar to the baseline level since the beginning of the pandemic.

Reproductive health

The rate of GP prescribed long acting reversible contraception (LARC) was significantly lower at the beginning of the first national lockdown than the monthly average from financial years 2017 to 2018 up to 2019 to 2020. Rates gradually increased from May to September 2020 and from October to December 2020 were closer to baseline nationally and in most regions. In January and February 2021 prescription rates were lower than baseline levels. In March prescription rates increased to baseline levels and have remained close to baseline levels until the latest data point. A similar patten was observed in the rates of LARC prescribed by sexual and reproductive health services up until the latest data point March 2021.

Access to care and hospital admissions

During the pandemic, there has been concern that people are not accessing healthcare for non-Covid related health issues. Survey data collected during the period 6 July 2020 to 26 January 2021 show that of those people reporting that they had a worsening health condition in the preceding 7 days, around half reported that they had not sought advice for their condition. The most common reason for not doing so was to avoid putting pressure on the NHS.

There was a reduction in monthly elective and emergency hospital admissions in each quarter from April to June 2020 to January to March 2021 in England compared with the monthly average for the equivalent months in 2018 and 2019 combined. This pattern was observed in men and women, and across all age groups, ethnic groups and deprivation deciles.

The rate of A&E recorded attendances were lower in quarters 1 (beginning April 2020), 2 and 3 in every age group, compared with the equivalent months in 2018 and 2019 combined.

The rate of outpatient attendances were lower in quarters 1 (beginning April 2020), 2 and 3 in every age group, compared with the equivalent months in 2018 and 2019 combined.

In children and young people, rates of hospital admissions from April to December 2020 for dental caries, asthma, diabetes, epilepsy, gastroenteritis, lower respiratory tract infections and following accidents were generally below the average rates in 2018 and 2019 for equivalent months.

Bronchiolitis is a lower respiratory tract viral infection that affects babies and young children under 2 years old. It is a seasonal infection that usually presents in the late autumn and winter months. Between March 2020 to May 2021, when there was reduced population mixing due to the pandemic, levels of bronchiolitis admissions remained lower than the comparison baseline months of 2018 to 2019. In June 2021 levels of admission were above the baseline. A warning notice was issued by Public Health England (PHE) in July 2021 noting this unusual out of season rise in bronchiolitis infections. The rise in cases have been attributed to the reduced levels of infection during 2020 and early 2021 resulting in a lower level of immunity and an expected rise in cases and admissions.

The largest rise was seen in the North West region with a 15.9% change from baseline during quarter April to May 2021 and for July 2021 a rate of 887.5 per 100,000. Yorkshire and The Humber and The North East had higher admission rates in July 2021 compared with the same period in 2018/2019 and 2020 at 664.2 and 517.3 per 100,000 respectively. All the other regions had admission rates below 346.9 per 100,000.

The highest admission rates in July 2021 were seen in those living the most deprived areas, 586.8 per 100,000, compared with an admission rate of 350.1 per 100,000 for those living in the least deprived areas.

Rates of admission following self-harm and assault for children and young people were generally below the average for 2018 and 2019 equivalent months for April to June 2020, rose in the second quarter to similar or slightly above this baseline level, and decreased to below the baseline level in the third quarter. This decrease was driven by a reduction in admissions for males, as admissions for females were above baseline in this quarter.

During the pandemic, there has been a reduction in the number of emergency admissions to hospital with cardiovascular related conditions. Weekly admissions for acute coronary syndromes (including heart attacks) and stroke were lower during the first national lockdown compared with the 2018 to 2019 average. From mid-June until 27 October, rates of admissions were similar to that of the 2018 to 2019 average. From November 2020 the admissions from acute coronary syndromes decreased below baseline to the end of January 2021 and then increased to be similar to the baseline from mid-Feb to early March 2021. The pattern was seen in both men and women. Reduced admissions during this period may result in increased out-of-hospital deaths, long-term complications and missed opportunities to provide secondary prevention treatment to patients.

In older adults aged 65 and over, rates of hospital admissions for hip fractures from April to September 2020 were similar to the average rates for 2018 and 2019 for equivalent months. Rates from October to December 2020 onwards were below the 2018 and 2019 baseline level. These patterns were broadly consistent across age groups, sex, deprivation, ethnic groups and regions. Rates of hospital admissions due to injuries caused by falls from April to June 2020 were below the 2018 and 2019 baseline level and have fluctuated around the baseline since July to September 2020 to the latest data point.

Alcohol

Alcohol consumption across the population as a whole remained about the same during the first national lockdown, with almost half reporting that they had neither increased nor decreased their drinking, and this pattern continued as restrictions were eased. Data up to October 2020 show that those aged 18 to 34 were more likely to report consuming less alcohol than before, during all phases of social restrictions, and those aged 35 to 54 were more likely to report an increase.

Mortality rates for alcohol-specific conditions were higher for all months from May 2020 to August 2021 than in the same months at baseline (2018 and 2019 combined). For both sexes, rates were increased in each quarter from quarter 2 of 2020 (April to June 2020), to quarter 2 of 2021 (April to June 2021), compared with the equivalent quarters at baseline. These trends were also observed for alcoholic liver disease, which accounts for most alcohol-specific deaths, while the trend was less clear for other alcohol-specific causes.

There was an increase in the proportion of ‘increasing and higher risk’ drinkers from April to June 2020. After that the rates declined slightly but remained consistently higher than 2019. From April 2021 to September 2021, following the ending of most social restrictions and the opening of non-essential shops, the proportion of ‘increasing and higher’ risk drinkers increased again.

Rates of emergency hospital admissions for all alcohol-specific conditions in England were lower in March, April and May 2020 than in the same months at baseline (2018 and 2019 combined). They then increased above baseline levels for months June to September 2020 and then fell below the baseline for the months October 2020 to January 2021. The rate increased above baseline in February to May 2021 and was below the baseline in July 2021. This pattern was seen for men and women.

Smoking

Smoking prevalence in the 4-week period ending 1 September 2021 was lower than the 2019 baseline. There has been an increase in the number of people attempting to quit smoking during the pandemic with almost two-fifths of smokers attempting to quit in June 2020, and remaining at similar levels until the latest data point. Over-the-counter nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) and e-cigarettes remain the most commonly used aids to quitting. However, during the pandemic there was a reduction in their use and a corresponding increase in people attempting to quit unaided. From March to September 2021 there was an increase from previous months in the use of medication and NRT as aids to quitting.

Gambling

The proportion of adults reporting engaging in and spending money on all types of gambling, including betting and the lottery, decreased during the first national lockdown compared with before. This was seen across all age groups and both sexes. Gambling behaviour then increased once sporting events and bookmakers reopened and by the start of the second national lockdown rates had returned to the levels seen before the first and remained similar until an increase in October 2020.

Impact on employment

The rate of people per 1,000 employees who had been made redundant or took voluntary redundancy more than tripled between May to July 2020 and November 2020 to January 2021. Since then, in the quarters March to May and June to August 2021, the rate of redundancies returned to pre-pandemic levels.

The proportion of those claiming unemployment benefits more than doubled between March 2020 and May 2020 and remained at a similar level until March 2021. The proportion of claimants then decreased from April to September 2021. These figures may not yet reflect the true impact of the pandemic.

The take-up rate of the furlough scheme, has been falling across all age bands. At the end of April 2021 under 18s had the highest rate. At the end of August 2021 the rate was highest in those aged 65 years and over. Take up was lowest in those aged under 18, 18 to 24 and 24 to 44 of whom 5% were on furlough leave. The Self-Employment Income Support Scheme (SEISS) take-up rate reached a high of 76% in July 2020. Since 6 June 2021 the rate decreased from 58% to 24% by 15 August 2021 and increased to 33% in September.

Metrics that haven’t been updated in this release

Impact on businesses

Lockdown meant significant impacts on businesses in terms of turnover and impact on the workforce. In the 2-week period ending 31 May 2020 just over a fifth of the UK workforce was on furlough and just under a quarter of enterprises across all industries had experienced a decrease in turnover of more than 50%. Data for the period ending 1

November shows that the proportion of the UK workforce on furlough leave across all industries has decreased to under a tenth, as the initial lockdown restrictions were gradually relaxed, and more businesses were able to reopen.

Alcohol purchasing

Alcohol purchasing rose sharply before the first national lockdown and has remained higher up to 14 February 2021 than in the same weeks in 2019. This pattern is observed across all life stages and social classes. There was an increase in alcohol purchasing in the 2 weeks preceding the start of the second national lockdown which began on 5 November and a further increase in the last 2 weeks of November.

Pregnancy

In April to June 2021 the percentage of babies whose first feed was breast milk increased to pre-pandemic levels or above. The importance of first feed breastmilk is twofold; the establishment and continuation of breastfeeding begins with initiation and first feed, and the feeding of colostrum in the first hours and days of life confers sophisticated protective benefits.

Maternal booking appointments should be within 10 weeks of pregnancy as they allow for scheduling of an ultrasound scan, identification of those who might need more than usual care, discussion of antenatal screening, identification of risk factors, offering support and discussion of mood and mental health. Women booking after 20 weeks are considered at high risk as they have missed the window of opportunity for screening for particular infectious diseases. In April 2021, the proportion of women booking within 10 weeks was higher than the baseline of April 2019. For May and June 2021 the proportion booking was higher than the baseline in 2019 but not as high as May and June 2020.

In general, rates of maternal booking per 1,000 women (at any point during pregnancy) increased in June 2021 to higher than the pre-pandemic baseline. For Asian or Asian British and Black or Black British women the rates for maternal bookings are higher than the corresponding months in 2019 and 2020. A smaller increase is seen in the Mixed and White ethnic groups.

Folic acid (also known as vitamin B9) is very important for the development of a healthy foetus, as it can significantly reduce the risk of neural tube defects (NTDs), such as spina bifida. Taking folic acid supplements before pregnancy is important because closure of the neural tube is normally complete by 4 weeks post-conception when many women may not be aware they are pregnant. In April to June 2021, the proportion of bookings where the women were taking folic acid prior to pregnancy has increased when compared to the corresponding months in 2019 and 2020.

Pregnant women with complex social factors (NICE CG110) are those whose pregnancies are complicated by one or more of the following: alcohol or drug misuse, recent migrant or asylum seeker status, difficulty reading or speaking English, aged under 20, domestic abuse. Recording is likely to vary between those groups. For April to June 2021, maternity bookings where the woman was subject to complex social factors as a percentage of all bookings was around half the level seen before the pandemic.

Please note the monthly data from Maternity Services Dataset (MSDS) is classified as experimental and should be used with caution. Experimental statistics are new official statistics undergoing evaluation.

Mortality rates

These data show the impact on inequalities for causes of death in 2020 where COVID-19 was not mentioned on the death certificate. Provisional mortality rates for cancer, stroke, circulatory disease, heart disease and respiratory disease were lower in 2020 compared to the baseline period (2015 to 2019) across all deprivation deciles. For dementia and Alzheimer’s disease, and digestive diseases, mortality rates in 2020 were similar to that of the baseline period.

Potential years of life lost

Potential Years of Life Lost (PYLL) is an estimate of the number of years a person could have been expected to live for, if they had not died from a specific cause.

In 2020, the PYLL rate for both sexes for deaths where COVID-19 was the underlying cause was significantly higher than the rates for all respiratory diseases, all digestive diseases, mental & behavioural conditions, dementia/Alzheimer’s, stroke, sepsis, flu/pneumonia. However, it was significantly lower than the PYLL rate for all cancers and all circulatory disease.

Safeguarding

The rate of safeguarding referrals for those aged under 19, received by community health care services, decreased in the period April to June 2020 compared with the equivalent months in 2019. The referrals have significantly increased in the quarters July to September 2020 and October to December 2020 compared with the equivalent months in 2019. In the quarter January to March 2021 the rate of referrals was similar to baseline but increased again in the latest quarter April to June 2021.

Community delivered healthcare

Community delivered healthcare includes all health care related activities that are carried out in community settings such as health centres or in a patient’s own home. Rates of community delivered healthcare activity for the period April to November 2020 were lower compared with the same month in 2019. This trend is seen across all age groups but was most marked in the groups that would usually have the most contact with community delivered healthcare, such as children and some older adults. January to June 2021 has generally seen an increase across all groups in the rates of community delivered health care, in particular for people over 25 years of age, returning to near pre-pandemic rates.

Sexual health testing and diagnosis

The number of tests for chlamydia decreased in March, April and May 2020 compared with the equivalent months in 2019. Chlamydia testing began to increase in June and July 2020 levelling off until September 2020 but did not reach the numbers during the equivalent months in 2019. There was a similar pattern of a decreased number of Hepatitis C tests and Gonorrhoea tests from March 2020 to September 2020 compared to the equivalent months in 2019. For each disease, the starkest difference between 2020 and baseline can be seen in April during the first lockdown.

HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) Services

Since March 2020, there was a shift from face to face HIV consultations to telephone consultations which continued for the rest of the year. Overall, there were significantly fewer HIV consultations that took place between April and June 2020 compared to the same period in 2019. However, by September 2020 the overall number had recovered and was higher than the same period in 2019 for the remainder of the year.

Travel

Mobility patterns changed visibly during the pandemic. The initial message to ‘stay at home’ during the first national lockdown showed high levels of compliance and all transport use saw a steep decline in the following 2 weeks.

Once restrictions eased, public transport use steadily increased whilst remaining below pre-pandemic levels. There was a slight decline in use of National Rail services from the end of September to the end of October 2020, perhaps reflecting the announcement on 23 September for people to work from home if they could and the introduction of local lockdowns.

At the beginning of the second national lockdown there was a steep decline in all public transport use, rising gradually from the end of November up to Christmas and then falling steeply over the Christmas Bank Holiday period. Public transport use remained steady throughout the third national lockdown, at a lower level than the second but higher than the first national lockdown. All forms of transport increased as some of the lockdown 3 measures were relaxed.

After an initial decline during the first national lockdown, trips in light goods vehicles, heavy goods vehicles and cars gradually increased and were back to normal levels from July 2020. Trips in cars and light goods vehicles declined steeply again during the second national lockdown, and gradually increased from the end of November 2020 leading up to Christmas and then declined steeply over the Christmas Bank Holiday period. During the third national lockdown, these indicators showed gradual increases, but were consistently at a lower level than seen in the second national lockdown, but a higher level than during the first national lockdown.

Since April 2021, changes in public transport use showed a continued trend for increased bus, tube, and general train use. Requests for directions from Apple Maps also increased during this time period.

Requests to Apple Maps for direction when using public transport overtook requests for driving in September 2021. This suggests a change in the way people are travelling and may reflect the number of students returning to education and office workers going back into city centre offices.

Requests to Apple Maps for directions when walking have continued to increase since the lifting of all social restrictions in April 2021 and have increased to a level more than double the pre-pandemic baseline.

Access to outdoor space and time spent on activities

Access to green space and outdoor space is important for health and wellbeing. Visits to parks were below the January to February 2020 baseline from 27 March to 7 May 2020, during the first lockdown; and below the baseline from 5 January to 19 February 2021, during the third lockdown. Those living in the London region have the lowest level of access to private outdoor space but also the shortest distance to travel to access public green spaces. Those in higher income groups have greater access to private garden space as do those from a White ethnic background and those in age bands 45 years and over.

Restrictions in place during lockdown and subsequently have had an impact on how people were able to use their time. Comparisons with data from 2014 to 2015 show that during March and April 2020 people were spending less time travelling, studying, doing housework and on personal care and more time sleeping and resting, entertaining and socialising, gardening and DIY, and working from home.

Air quality

Air quality data is available for London, Manchester and Birmingham. Improvements in air quality since the introduction of initial lockdown in March are mainly due to reductions in the concentration of the nitrogen oxide (NO2) in the environment. Data for NO2 up to the end of November show that these values are generally lower than the same period in 2019.

Physical Activity

In April and May 2020, about one-third of adults reported doing at least 30 minutes of physical activity on 5 or more days in the previous week. This has since declined, with just under a quarter of adults reporting this level of physical activity up to the 30 November 2020.

Around one-third of adults reported doing more physical activity than usual during the lockdown period between 3 April and 11 May 2020, while over one-third said they were doing less. Similarly, just under a third of parents reported that their children were doing more physical activity compared with before the initial lockdown, although just over one-third said they were doing less.

Adult physical activity – Active Lives indicators measure the percentage of adults (aged 16 years and over) who do less than 30 minutes or 150 of more minutes of sport and physical activity each week.

The percentage of adults doing 150 minutes or more of sport or physical activity a week (defined as active) significantly decreased to 58.2% in the period 16 March to 15 May 2020, compared with 65.3% in the same period in 2019. In the period after the first lockdown ended (16 July to 15 September 2020) the percentage of active adults increased to 63.3% but was still significantly lower than the same period in 2019, where 66.4% of adults were active.

Crime and anti-social behaviour

There was a reduction in many types of police-recorded crime during the first national lockdown, March 2020 to May 2020, compared with the same months in 2019. An exception to this pattern was drug offences, where levels increased, the rate in May 2020 was over two-fifths higher than in May 2019.

During the period April to May, when asked about their perception of national crime and crime in their local area ‘since the virus outbreak’, over half perceived that national crime had gone down, whereas just under a half perceived that there had been no change in levels of crime in their local area.

About 8 in 10 adults reported that there had been no change in how much they worried about crime in general since the virus outbreak.

Around a fifth of adults perceived anti-social behaviour levels in their local area to have decreased during the pandemic period and a similar proportion reported experiencing or witnessing anti-social behaviour in the last 3 months.

Online activity

During May and June 2020 over half of parents reported that their child aged 10 to 15 years was spending 5 or more hours per day online, with 12.2% spending 9 or more hours online. Over a tenth of parents reported that their child had encountered one or more negative online experiences in the last month.

Domestic violence

The total number of offences recorded as domestic violence by the police in England and Wales is available up to June 2020. The number of offences was greater in every month in 2020 compared with each corresponding month in 2018 and 2019.

The weekly number of domestic abuse cases recorded from Victim Support services decreased below baseline in the week of 30 March 2020 and increased above baseline (the average number of cases received per week in the eight-week period, 6 January 2020 to 1 March 2020) week of the 20 April. Recorded cases continued to increase with some fluctuation including a sharp increase from 4 May to 11 May, until they peaked week beginning 17 August. Cases then dropped until 31 August and remained similar until the most recent data point 14 September 2020. Refuge introduced a live chat service in May 2020, so women trapped at home with their perpetrators during lockdown had an additional way to communicate with Refuge, which may account for the increase in recorded cases seen from weeks 4 May to 11 May.

Community support (social capital)

Data up to 2 August show that people have felt supported during the pandemic. Similarly, the majority of people felt that people were helping others more than before. These patterns were seen across income, age, sex, and ethnic groups.

Homeschooling

From 23 March 2020 until the start of the 2020 autumn term, most schools in England were closed to children other than those with parents who were keyworkers or who were classed as vulnerable. In the 4-week period up to 7 June, around 70% of parents reported homeschooling their children.

In the 6 week period up to 17 May 2020 29.3% of parents or guardians felt that homeschooling was having a negative effect on their wellbeing, with numbers significantly higher among women (35.2%) compared with men (21.8%)

Schools remained open during the second national lockdown and for the remainder of the term but were closed again at the start of the third national lockdown in January 2021.

Grocery purchasing and food usage

The volume of grocery purchases rose sharply just before the first lockdown on 23 March 2020. Volume sales remained higher up to and including the week ending 14 February 2021 than at the same point in the previous year. During this time shoppers made fewer trips but bought more items per trip than in the same period in the previous year.

Leading up to and during the second national lockdown there was an increase in grocery purchases compared with the same period in the previous year, but not to the same level seen in March 2020. A similar pattern emerged for the third national lockdown, with volume of grocery purchases being comparable to those of the second national lockdown. These patterns are seen across all socioeconomic groups.

Changes in food use behaviours were most visible among the younger age groups, households with children and those who were self-isolating. About half of 16 to 34 year olds changed their food use patterns between April and June while the habits of most of the older age groups remained consistent. There was a shift towards cooking more from scratch, eating together with the family and eating healthy meals, but also a marked increase in snacking, especially in April and May.

A more detailed analysis of the impact of COVID-19 pandemic on grocery shopping behaviours was published on 5 November.

How to use this Tool

Use the tabs at the top of the screen to move between the different metric groups.

Each tab provides a visualisation of the selected metric by different breakdowns and the trends over time for the metrics available.

  1. Select the metric to display in the ‘Indicator’ drop down. The dashboard will populate with the selected data.
  2. Select the breakdown you would like to display from the ‘Breakdown’ drop down.
  3. Navigate between viewing charts, data tables and metadata using the tabs in each theme.
  4. To see a single variable on a chart click on the variable name in the legend.
  5. View data from previous releases using the 'Release Date' drop down.

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The content listed below is non-accessible for the following reasons.

Navigation

• Graph controls could not be accessed with a keyboard alone
• A feature to skip over the navigation and filters to go directly to the main content was not provided
• It is not possible to dismiss content on the navigation bar that appears on-hover with keyboard only

Images

• A number of icons and images were missing alternative text

Zoom

• Content was lost when the page is zoomed in up to 400% and scrolling occurred in both directions

Colours

• The colour contrast of text and the graph controls was insufficient

Structure

• ARIA landmarks such as main and banner were missing
• The language of the page had not been set
• The current page state is visually communicated but not programmatically communicated
• Important changes in content that occur dynamically are not announced to screen reader users
• Lists were not used to group contents in some areas
• HTML was not nested according to the specification

Graphs

• The graphs require colour vision to interpret, failing Use of Color
• Icons used in the graphs, and some colour combinations fail Non-Text Contrast
• The keyboard controls are not Keyboard accessible
• The graphs do not have alt-text, failing Non-Text Content
• The text within the graphs are not structured, failing Info and Relationships

 

What we’re doing to improve accessibility

Most of the issues above will be reviewed with the development team and be resolved within 6 months.

The graphs are created using a library, and it has not been possible to find an accessible alternative. The data tables associated with each graph will be updated to ensure they include the same information as the graph.

 

Preparation of this accessibility statement

This statement was prepared on 23rd September 2021. It was last reviewed on 23rd September.

This website was last tested on 22nd September 2021. The test was carried out by Nomensa. A selection of 10 pages across the site were selected for testing, covering the main templates and types of content (graphs) that are available.

Grocery purchasing and food usage

Social determinants of health

Mental health and wellbeing

Behavioural risk factors

Access to care

Air quality

Pregnancy and birth

Life expectancy



Mortality


COVID-19 Health Inequalities Monitoring for England (CHIME)

The COVID-19 Health Inequalities Monitoring for England (CHIME) tool brings together data relating to the direct impacts of COVID-19, such as on mortality rates and hospital admissions.

By presenting inequality breakdowns, including by age, sex, ethnic group, level of deprivation and region, the tool provides a single point of access to:

  • show how inequalities have changed during the course of the pandemic and what the current cumulative picture is
  • bring together data in one tool to enable users to access and utilise the intelligence more easily
  • provide indicators with a consistent methodology across different datasets to facilitate understanding
  • support users to identify and address inequalities within their areas and identify priority areas for recovery